We are the Evil Ones.

LittleJohn was unconvinced by Theresa May's ostentatious display of solidarity.
LittleJohn was unconvinced by Theresa May’s ostentatious display of solidarity.

February 6th, 2015.

We are the Evil Ones.

Open Season Upon Whom?!

While reading the Daily Mail Online recently I was able to drag myself away from the “sidebar of shame” long enough to notice an astonishing piece  by a columnist named Richard Little John.
It has been open season on Jews since 9/11, Theresa: RICHARD LITTLEJOHN says Home Secretary’s solidarity will be seen as an empty gesture unless it is followed up with firm action | Daily Mail Online

I can only describe my response to the article as being stunned disbelief.
Because while the entire habit and tradition of scapegoating and persecuting religious and ethnic minorities is repugnant,  and I do not want to see anyone singled out targeted, defamed or belittled based on their identity. the assertions made in  this piece are so contrary to reality that I thought, this must all be an hallucination.
It must’ve been the Jewish nation of Afghanistan that was bombed and occupied completely pointlessly for thirteen years as “punishment” for a False Flag terror attack conducted by Westerners and not blamed on Afghans or the Afghan government by even the arch liars.
It must have been Jews who were haphazardly rounded up on the battlefields of Afghanistan and sent to the legal black hole of Guantanamo Bay, tortured and imprisoned indefinitely.
It must have been the Jewish nation of Iraq that was attacked outside the provisions of International Law in 2003 and lost millions of citizens in the subsequent fighting and chaos. It must have been Jewish Iraqis whom the US military were simply rounding up and torturing. It must have been a Jewish Iraqi woman forced to watch as her young son was anally raped in an American dungeon while the cameras rolled.
It must have been the Jewish nation of Libya that was bombed by Western aircraft and left as a smoking ruin by the feckless Obama,Cameron and Sarkozy. Whose concern for the people of Libya apparently expired the day they achieved the “fig-leaf of legality” in the UN Security Council.

Students gather at the site of a suspected U.S. drone strike on an Islamic seminary in Hangu district
Aftermath of Drone attack in Pakistan.

It must have been the Jewish people of Pakistan who were targeted in hundreds of US drone strikes that saw thousands of civilians killed as Unmanned Aircraft were used to attack people on the ground who appeared to possibly be militants.
It must have been the Jewish people of Yemen who were also subjected to dozens of the identical US drone strikes killing hundreds of civilians including a sixteen year old American,
It must have been the Jews of India who were massacred in 2002 in Gujarat state in the anti Muslim pogroms known as the Gujarat riots.

Gazan Civilians Flee massacre in Shujiya, August 2014.
Gazan Civilians Flee massacre in Shujiya, August 2014.

It must have been the Jewish population of Palestine who were forcibly and illegally removed from their land, repeatedly slaughtered en masse and in Gaza placed in an open air prison camp and regularly bombed by Fighter Air Craft.
It must have been the Jews of Egypt whose major political party was outlawed and declared a terrorist group and whose supporters were slaughtered in the street, locked up and tortured because they belonged to the “wrong” political party.
It must have been the Jewish Somalians who were also attacked by US Aircraft and an Ethiopian invasion because their government, (the Islamic Courts Union) their first stable government in decades, was deemed “unsuitable” to the interests of the Empire.
It must have been Jewish people that were portrayed as the insane and irrational bad guy in every Hollywood movie and US television series.
I assume the point has been made. The point is that the group who are under attack, who are being scapegoated, demeaned defamed and oppressed are Muslims. Of course many others are also suffering oppression, but since 911 millions of Muslims have died in Western wars that achieved nothing but misery and destruction. It is absolutely extraordinary that Mr. LittleJohn cannot grasp this basic and obvious fact.
The answer to all this is to recognise our mutual humanity across all boundaries and refuse to participate in a scapegoating campaign against any group in society or the world. There is a tremendous taboo against anti-Jewish hatred in the West and that is perfectly legitimate and understandable. It is so disappointing the way humanity repeats the identical errors across generations and civilisations. It is sickening the way we are all apologetic to former victims whilst not realising we are still perpetrators. Only this time it’s justified, right? “Well they told us it was a threat?” They told us that “Communist North Vietnam” was such a threat that it was worth the deaths of more than 50,000 US soldiers and up to 3.8 million Vietnamese citizens.
The Communists won the war and where was the threat? Did we even care? It meant nothing to people living in the USA, absolutely nothing. These tactics are old hat, they are really a joke at this stage.
If you are upset about the crimes committed against the Jewish civilians of Europe during World War 2, please recognise that “never again” means never again to anybody and it is Muslims who are in need of protection against defamation and harassment in the modern day Western world. Please remember that the entire War on Terror narrative is built around False Flag attacks conducted by Western Intelligence Agencies and their cut-outs.
Please understand that we are the threat, we are the tyrants and the barbarians. We are the Evil ones. These operations have nothing to do with “Democracy” or “Liberation: or any of the nonsense we are told. They are wars ultimately for the sake of War. War is an even bigger Racket than Smedley Butler could ever have imagined. I am not trying to suggest that Westerners are inherently wicked, but we have clearly fallen into an offhand, casual supremacism, and it is a tool that is being used to destroy the lives of the people of the Middle East and this should be unacceptable to all.

Former SAS soldier Ben Griffin – I Will NOT Fight For Queen and Country

(Warning! This is very distressing and unpleasant)
The Video the Pentagon doesn’t want you to see!

Sources:
US soldiers raped Iraqi boys in front of their mothers | Veterans News Now
http://www.veteransnewsnow.com/2014/12/29/513543us-soldiers-raped-iraqi-boys-in-front-of-their-mothers/

War Is A Racket by Major General Smedley Butler – warisaracket.pdf.
http://www.ratical.org/ratville/CAH/warisaracket.pdf

41 men targeted but 1,147 people killed: US drone strikes – the facts on the ground | US news | The Guardian
http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2014/nov/24/-sp-us-drone-strikes-kill-1147
Drone strikes in Pakistan – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drone_strikes_in_Pakistan

The Toll Of 5 Years Of Drone Strikes: 2,400 Dead
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/01/23/obama-drone-program-anniversary_n_4654825.html

It takes 28 civilian lives to kill a single terrorist leader – UK human rights group — RT News
http://rt.com/news/208527-reaping-lives-drone-strikes/
Drone strikes in Yemen | The Bureau of Investigative Journalism
http://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/category/projects/drones/drones-yemen/

Terrorism in Yemen – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terrorism_in_Yemen

Analysis: What next for Yemen as death toll from confirmed US drone strikes hits 424, including 8 children | The Bureau of Investigative Journalism
http://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/2015/01/30/analysis-death-toll-drone-strikes-yemen-crisis-what-next/

Covert Drone War | The Bureau of Investigative Journalism
http://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/category/projects/drones/

Get the Data: The Pakistan government’s secret document | The Bureau of Investigative Journalism
http://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/2013/07/22/get-the-data-the-pakistan-governments-secret-document/

Get the data: What the drones strike | The Bureau of Investigative Journalism
http://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/2014/05/23/get-the-data-what-the-drones-strike/

Get the data: Drone wars | The Bureau of Investigative Journalism
http://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/category/projects/drones/drones-graphs/

Vietnam War casualties – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War_casualties

Vietnam War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War

Vietnam War killed 3.8 million Vietnamese, not 2.1 million? | ACCUMULATING PERIPHERALS
https://mattsteinglass.wordpress.com/2008/06/20/vietnam-war-killed-38-million-vietnamese-not-21-million/

Guantanamo Bay detention camp – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guantanamo_Bay_detention_camp

Guantanamo Bay homicide accusations – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guantanamo_Bay_homicide_accusations

Guantanamo Bay sergeant claims CIA tortured 3 men to death – NY Daily News
http://www.nydailynews.com/news/politics/guantanamo-bay-sergeant-claims-cia-tortured-3-men-death-article-1.2082610

War in Somalia (2006–09) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_in_Somalia_(2006%E2%80%9309)

Islamic Courts Union – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_Court_Union
Jacqui Lambie says Islamic law involves terrorism as she stands firm on burqa ban
http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/jacqui-lambie-says-islamic-law-involves-terrorism-as-she-stands-firm-on-burqa-ban-20140921-10jw4b.html

French ban on face covering – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_ban_on_face_covering

Civilian casualties in the War in Afghanistan (2001–14) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civilian_casualties_in_the_War_in_Afghanistan_(2001%E2%80%9314)

War in Afghanistan (2001–14) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_in_Afghanistan_(2001%E2%80%9314)

Lancet surveys of Iraq War casualties – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lancet_surveys_of_Iraq_War_casualties

Iraq Death Toll Reaches 500,000 Since Start Of U.S.-Led Invasion, New Study Says
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/15/iraq-death-toll_n_4102855.html

BBC News – Iraq study estimates war-related deaths at 461,000
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-24547256

Iraq war claimed half a million lives, study finds | Al Jazeera America
http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2013/10/15/iraq-war-civiliandeathtoll500knewstudyestimates.html

Report: A Million Veterans Injured In Iraq, Afghanistan Wars
http://www.forbes.com/sites/rebeccaruiz/2013/11/04/report-a-million-veterans-injured-in-iraq-afghanistan-wars/

Ben Griffin (British Army soldier) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_Griffin_(British_Army_soldie

SAS soldier quits Army in disgust at ‘illegal’ American tactics in Iraq – Telegraph
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1512769/SAS-soldier-quits-Army-in-disgust-at-illegal-American-tactics-in-Iraq.html

Court gags ex-SAS man who made torture claims | UK news | The Guardian
http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2008/feb/29/military.law

SAS man quits in protest at ‘illegal’ Iraq war | UK news | The Guardian
http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2006/mar/13/military.iraq

Libyan Civil War (2014–present) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libyan_Civil_War_(2014)

Libyan Crisis (2011–present) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libyan_crisis_(2011%E2%80%93present)

Libya Today: 2 Governments, Many Militias, Infinite Chaos : Parallels : NPR
http://www.npr.org/blogs/parallels/2015/02/06/384277648/libya-today-two-governments-many-militias-infinite-chaos

Libyan Civil War (2011) – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libyan_Civil_War_(2011)

Heavy fighting reported in Libya’s Benghazi – Al Jazeera English
http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/02/heavy-fighting-reported-libya-benghazi-150206022207833.html

2002 Gujarat riots – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2002_Gujarat_riots

Reel Bad Arabs – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reel_Bad_Arab

al-Nakba: the Palestinian “Catastrophe”

http://www.al-nakba-history.com/origins1948.html

B’Tselem: Israel Violated International Law in Gaza | Veterans Today

B’Tselem: Israel Violated International Law in Gaza

Einsatzgruppen – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einsatzgruppen

The shocking thing about the Mail Online’s sidebar of shame | Andrew Brown | Comment is free | The Guardian

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/mar/24/mail-online-sidebar-of-shame

Oops! They Hoaxed it Again!

MI6 Chap and his Mossad pal, pose together on an unknown soundstage.
MI6 Chap and his Mossad pal, pose together on an unknown soundstage.

Oops They Hoaxed it Again!
Beheading Hoax Mk.2 Steven Sotloff.


There is a funny scene towards the end of the Monty Python classic “the Life of Brian”. A large group of prisoners on their way to crucifixion are greeted by a cheerful Roman soldier/bureaucrat, who greets the prisoners and instructs them, “Out of the door, line on the left, one cross each”. One prisoner states “No, I am not sentenced to crucifixion, I’m was sentenced to freedom”. The incompetent Roman bureaucrat has no idea the man is lying and says “All right them, off you go” Whereupon the man sentenced to crucifixion admits he has been lying, he too has been sentenced to crucifixion, the Roman bureaucrat scolds him lightly, they both laugh at the prank, and the prisoner resumes his place in the group of men about to be crucified. It’s a joke about bureaucratic incompetence and also peoples mindless subservience towards it. The reason the scene is funny is it’s absurdity, it is ridiculous, no-one sentenced to be crucified who managed to talk their way out of it would ever possibly confess immediately and return to the condemned group.
The bizarre, absurd and fraudulent “beheading” videos of US journalists James Foley and now Steven Sotloff are truly Pythonesque in their absurdity.
Imagine the conversation.
IS jihad nutter enters the cell where captured US journalist is being held.
After greeting the prisoner and exchanging minor pleasantries, the British born jihadist nutter explains the unfortunate situation to the captured journalist.
“Your American government has disobeyed our orders to stop blowing our “brothers” up therefore, I am going to have to chop your head off on camera today in the hopes that the US government will discontinue Air strikes against the Caliphate,”
Captured US journalist. “Understood buddy, no hard feelings, is there any way I can help you blokes out with your propaganda message before you cut my head off?”
British Jihadist Nutter “As it happens mate, we have worked up a little speech we would like you to read for the camera, I have the script here, we think it’s best if you can learn as much as possible before we go live. We will have cue cards, but it will be more natural if you can memorise it.”
Captured American journalist. “Not a problem, I will do my best, we will have takes available if I miss a line though buddy?”
British jihad nutter. “Multiple takes. Thank you for being so obliging in what must be an upsetting time.”
Captured US journalist. “Glad to be helpful buddy.”
British Jihadist  nutter “ Excellent, listen, I have a couple of things to do so I’ll leave that with you and I guess I’ll see you at the beheading.”
“OK pal, I will have this thing down. I am gonna nail this script down, I really want to do a good job for you guys.”
British Jihadist nutter. “Excellent” Departs.
These men are journalists, they are not complete fools, they would know that the US is never going to change what it does based on threats to hostages from Jihadists. They would know that the videos would have the exact opposite effect, they would galvanise the United States public against the “Caliphate” make the need to destroy them and attack them seem more urgent and be more popular.

One interesting thing about this rather dismal psychological operation, is that the creators of these fiascos clearly tried to learn from their mistakes in the Foley video.
There are some minor improvements. They clearly decided that the lack of wind noise in what purported to be a Video shot outdoors was a problem, so the Sotloff video has far more wind noise. They seem to have simply procured a more powerful fan and turned it up to it’s highest level. They also improved the “death shot”, producing a fake video (rather than simply a photo as in Foley video) purporting to depict the corpse of Sotloff with the head sitting on the top.

The immediate goal of these Videos and this group are fairly obvious. Raise the level of fear amongst Western civilians, destroy the social fabric of the Middle East, mimicking the Zionist movement with Neo-Bolshevik Sunni Extremists and rejuvenate and ‘renew the narrative” of the Global War on Terror.

These monsters have been manufactured and they have been hyped, but many of their crimes are very real. The fact that these videos are not authentic does not change that fact.

The sad truth is that the “IS” group are the enemies of humanity, they need to be dealt with sooner rather than later, and I support all of the Military Operations being conducted against them, despite the cynical and dishonest nature of this psychological operation. The way the USA watched passively as the IS looted the Iraq Army weapons stockpiles is extremely suspicous, especially the way they were allowed to drive the hardware back to their Syrian strongholds.

It i9s time for the West to abandon the operation they have been conducting against the Government of Syria over the past four years. It has failed, it has been a fiasco and has only deepened the instability and chaos in this region for no tangible benefit.

There is no doubt the Ba’athist government in Syria has committed many crimes over the years, there is equally no doubt that the Syrian government is not Sectarian, represents stability and is vastly preferable to any of it’s rivals in Syria.

\Where the Neocons failed to get their War in Syria, they succeeded in Libya. Gaddafi, like the Ba’athists in Syria had many faults and committed many crimes, Libya is now a failed state. Revolution almost never achieves positive change, especially when it is violent. The people of the Middle East have suffered unbelievable torment and privation as a result of the deluded policy of chaos pursued by the West over the past decade. When things go wrong as in Libya, they simply walk away as if it had nothing to do with them. These policies are completely counterproductive and immoral and must end forever now.

The very idea that “We know best” is no more than an arrogant  delusion of the childish megalomaniacs of the Western think tanks.

Enough already.

James Robertson.

The Meaning of the Beheading Hoax.

The MI6 chap and his CIA buddy on an Unknown Soundstage
The MI6 chap and his CIA buddy on an unknown Soundstage

The Meaning of the Beheading Hoax.
I loathe this type of material and never seek it out, only after it became obvious that the video did not depict a murder did I watch and download the so called execution video. I was astonished to discover that the “execution” video does not depict any actual violence or evidence of death, indeed the “money shot” in this evil snuff porn is a transparent fraud. It appears as though they have a CPR dummy with a couple of blood packs and heavy use of Photoshop. The photograph of the dead James Foley is obviously manipulated at first sight, detailed analysis is not required, it’s almost intentionally insulting.The video appears to have been created on a soundstage,and it must be assumed that Mr. Foley was not killed, because, if he had been killed their would be no need to photoshop the only image that depicts his beheadedness. A bloodied head is placed on a body, the body appears to be a dummy, the head is photoshopped, the body and the head are both without any signs of a neck. The neck has completely disappeared. At face value, it seems like the “executioner” is an actor, presumably but not necessarily working for British Intelligence. The same assumption is valid for Mr. Foley, he is almost certainly, 99.9999% a CIA operative.
British intelligence have a history of manufactured beheadings, as they appear to be the authors of the Lee Rigby fake beheading street theatre of May 2013.

The Prosecution of Chris Spivey.

This video drives the point home really well.

James Foley FAKE Execution – Video Analysis Reveals the Truth

The criticism appears to be leading to fear from the opposition.

Thus: Watching James Foley beheading video may be a terror offence, Met police warn | Mail Online

‘We would like to remind the public that viewing, downloading or disseminating extremist material within the UK may constitute an offence under terrorism legislation.’
Government sources today confirmed that David Cameron has seen a full version of the video following his return to Downing Street.
Presumably the Met will now proceed to caution Prime Minister Cameron, as he has been admitted to watch the video which “may constitute an offence under terrorism legislation.”

So we have another act of psychological warfare against the people of the West and the Muslim world. The operating assumption would be that the US, Israeli, British, French and probably many other Western intelligence agencies have been running the “Islamic State” operation all the way.
The bizarre paradox is that because the “Islamic State” group is being set up as the next patsy candidate for a massive attack in the United States, the right thing for the US military to do is to use their air-force to crush the group because it will vastly reduce the pool of patsies and make the false flag much harder to conduct.
The rational thing to do would be to try and end the Syrian Civil war through negotiations, give amnesty to the rebel fighters, stop the fighting and focus on the “IS” group, yet maniacal Neocons are actually trying to use the “IS” threat as a pretext to attack the government of Syria! It’s astonishing. The naked psychosis of actually blaming the Syrian Government for the presence of fighters we and our allies in Turkey, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. armed and sent into their country is astonishing even by the standards of the serial liars of our controlled media.
Incredibly, CNN were actually caught running an “IS” psy- op in Ferguson Missouri, where protests continue and are meeting police state tactics almost a fortnight after unarmed black teenager Mike Brown was shot six times by a police officer, including an execution style sixth bullet fired into the teens head.
“ISIS IS HERE! CNN Caught Staging ‘ISIS Psyop In Ferguson’ #ferguson”

The point is, that this group if left undefeated, will pose a grave threat, because they are the patsies, the loud mouthed “synthetic” Muslims framing themselves for whatever atrocity the “Secret Team” come up with next as the United States police begin to unmask themselves as the committed slaves of the New World Order. Obviously that is not going to be true of all, or even a majority of US police on an individual level. This is the institutional view, and subscription to these views are the price of joining the “new feudal enforcement” gangs.

There is some information that can be gleaned from this lie operation.
1. They are clearly working from a script, and on that script there are clearly a checklist of things they are going to do.
2. Given the consistent threats towards the USA, and frequent claims by the “IS” today to have fighters in the United States, along with the implicit threats from former Vice President Cheney of nuclear attack on the USA. There is an overwhelming likelihood- far short of certainty, that one of the items towards the bottom of the list is some type of “mega terror” attack in the United States.
3. This has in many ways been the year of the Trident. The trident on the Ukraine coat of arms.

Ukraine Coat of Arms
Ukraine Coat of Arms

The  Trident of Malaysian Airlines.

Malaysian Airlines Logo.
Malaysian Airlines Logo.

Three prongs, I think that there is a very strong possibility that they will not stop at two Malaysian Airlines jets this year. A “suicide hijacking” blamed on “IS” would make a fitting end to a year of terror attacks against the Malaysian flag carrier apparently motivated by rage at the Kuala Lumpur Tribunal findings of guilt against Israel for genocide made in November 2013.

The findings were in relation to the Israeli supervised and conducted massacre of thousands of Arab civilians in November , in September 1982 in the Sabra and Shatila camps and a Beirut Stadium.
Kuala Lumpur War Crimes Commission – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Why the Kuala Lumpur Tribunal’s genocide verdict against Israel sets a key precedent — RT Op-Edge

This will teach them to run their nasty and subversive little show trials telling the truths about Western crimes.
4. One target, a target that seems absurd in scale, but that does appear to have been foreshadowed, is the Hoover Dam. A more realistic target would be the Sears towers. This is pure speculation without solid foundation.
5. This group have already been used as a “false flag”. The ISIS Israeli teen kidnapping responsibility claim indicates  that the “ISIS” device is being used by Israeli intelligence.. The evidence, albeit circumstantial, indicates that it was Israeli security forces who kidnapped and murdered the three young Israeli settlers. The Israeli police appear to have engaged in an obvious “stand down” when the attack happened, with the police operator dismissing the emergency call made by one of the teen victims was a hoax and ignoring it. No action whatsoever was taken for five hours after the distress call. Two interesting features of the phone call that stand out are that the kidnapper says to the hostages “get down, get down” speaking Hebrew.Another thing was that the sounds of gunfire were clearly audible on the recording of the distress call. A number of shots are fired and the teens are apparently murdered in the back of a car.” The Mossad Chief speculated about a near identical scenario only a week prior to the event. The incriminating Israeli number-plates were removed from the burned out vehicle that turned up out of nowhere and was said to have been used in the kidnapping and murder. So the ISIS claim of responsibility, when Hamas are the designated guilty party, and some part of the Israeli Security Structure are responsible is more than a little suspicious.
It appears not to be the Mossad Chief or that group but one of the internal agencies. There was an internal power struggle within the Israeli security apparatus, the kidnapping was a wicked riposte from the hard liners against the moderates who apparently included the Mossad Chief,
ISIS-linked Muslim group takes responsibility for kidnapping three teens, including one American, in Israel : Jihad Watch
6. The media are not hyping this group for fun, and the goal is much broader than a few air strikes in Iraq or Syria. If an attack is imminent, it is likely that “IS” fighters will begin making time and place specific threats. The New World Order don’t want the police to fight the people. They want the people to cheer for and identify with the police state. Like they appeared to do after the Boston bombings, they want the people to demand the police state.On;y terror can create the right mindset. It is all doomed,it’s not going to work, but they are not about to lay down after so many decades of effort.